The Glucose Monitoring Experiences Questionnaire (GME-Q) was designed to elicit users’ evaluations of their current glucose monitoring method (including finger prick and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices). We aimed to conduct psychometric analyses of the GME-Q among adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Item development was informed by literature review as well as exploratory and cognitive debriefing interviews with 17 adults (9 women) with T1D, aged (mean±SD) 48±10 years. A conceptual framework was proposed including three potential domains (effectiveness, convenience, intrusiveness of monitoring method) assessed with 25 items (9 negatively worded), and a single, overview item asking about the extent to which ‘my current method of monitoring suits me well’.
The GME-Q was included in the ‘YourSAY: Glucose Monitoring’ Australian online survey. A total of 592 eligible adults (aged ≥18 years) with T1D, not currently using CGM, participated: 64% women, mean±SD age 44±15 years, diabetes duration 22±14 years, 42% using insulin pump therapy, median (IQR) number of glucose checks on a typical day was 6 (4,7).
Complete GME-Q data were available for 578 (98%) participants, suggesting acceptability of the questionnaire. After deletion of 3 redundant items, principal components analysis supported a 22-item questionnaire with three domains (Effectiveness (9 items); Intrusiveness (6 items); Convenience (7 items)), accounting for 55% of variance, and displaying good internal consistency reliability (α=0.83-0.88). A single factor structure accounted for 36% of variance (α=0.91). The domains correlated (r=0.44-0.66, p<0.001) with the single, overview item, together explaining 51% of the total variance in the single item score.
Psychometric validation supports the 22-item GME-Q, which provides an acceptable, valid and reliable measure of experiences of current method of glucose monitoring. Future research needs to determine the predictive validity of the GME-Q and explore psychometric properties among adults using CGM devices.
The YourSAY study was funded by Abbott Diabetes Care.