Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between hyperglycaemia in hospital populations and adverse outcomes. However, this does not necessarily mean that treatment of hyperglycaemia will improve outcomes. The results of randomised controlled trials examining the treatment of hospital hyperglycaemia treatment have been mixed. These trials will be reviewed, and some of the controversies related to their results will be discussed.
The rationale for the inpatient glucose targets of 5-10 mmol/L as proposed in the ADS guidelines will also be explored. Finally some of the medical approaches to achieve better glycaemic control in hospital will be discussed.